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Il CDM e quelle riduzioni di gas serra 'finte'

Industrie che producono più gas serra solo per poi distruggerlo e guadagnare certificati da vendere sul mercato. I CER assegnati per la distruzione del potentissimo gas serra HCF-23, il 60% di quelli utilizzati in Europa, rischiano di essere controproducenti per il clima. Anche per la commissaria Ue Connie Hedegaard è necessario mettervi un limite.

Progetti di compensazione delle emissioni che nella pratica hanno l'effetto perverso di far produrre più gas serra e che, oltre ad arricchire chi li mette in atto, tengono basso il prezzo dei certificati di riduzione delle emissioni (CER) scambiati sul mercato della CO2, con conseguenti penalizzazioni dei progetti più efficaci. Una distorsione tutt'altro che marginale che però Onu e Unione Europea starebbero lentamente adoperandosi per eliminare. Ultimo segnale in questa direzione è una dichiarazione della commissaria europea per il clima, Connie Hedegaard che affronta il problema.

Stiamo parlando dei progetti Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) nell'ambito della produzione industriale di idrofluorocarburi come l' HCFC-22. Le industrie che producono HCFC-22, gas propellente e refrigerante che ha sostituito sostanze bandite perché dannose per l'ozono, infatti acquisiscono dei CER per distruggere un sottoprodotto della lavorazione dell'HCFC-22: l'HFC-23, gas serra 11mila volte dannoso per il clima della CO2.
Si tratta solo dello 0,8% dei progetti mondiali nell'ambito CDM, ma forniscono e hanno fornito per anni – spiega l'ong britannica Sandbag.orgoltre il 60% dei crediti spesi sul mercato europeo delle emissioni.

Una quota che fa capire la gravità di quanto da tempo viene denunciato da Ong come CDM Watch e Sandbag.org e che recentemente è stato constatato anche da agenzie delle Nazioni Unite (si veda questo report UNFCCC). Dal 2005 alcune industrie, infatti, avrebbero prodotto gas serra in eccesso per il solo scopo di distruggerlo e acquisire così i CER. Oltre a produrre molto più HCFC-22 rispetto alla richiesta di mercato avrebbero massimizzato la quantità di HFC-23, introducendo deliberatamente nel processo sostanze ad hoc. Risultato: sul mercato ci sarebbero milioni di certificati di riduzione delle emissioni "finti" che non portano benefici reali alla lotta al global warming, ma bensì sottraggono risorse a iniziative più efficaci.

Una questione politica spinosa perché si tratta di un giro di denaro miliardario e perché le 19 industrie sotto osservazione sono situate per la maggior parte in paesi cruciali nella contrattazione internazionale  sulla riduzione delle emissioni, come India e Cina. A questo si aggiunga che la Banca Mondiale – che ha investito nei due più grandi progetti di distruzione di HFC-23 – nega che la distorsione esista e si oppone alla riforma di questo modo di assegnare i CER. Per questo duramente criticata dalle Ong del settore.

Qualcosa però  ultimamamente sembra muoversi. Da quest'estate il comitato esecutivo Onu per il Clean Development Mechanism sta indagando sulla questione per pensare ad una possibile riforma. A livello europeo, invece, la buona notizia è la dichiarazione fatta qualche giorno fa dalla commissaria Connie Heedegard: proporrà che nella fase dell'emission trading europeo che inizierà nel 2012 si stabiliscano standard più severi sulla provenienza dei CER spesi nello schema dell'Emissions Trading e, in particolare, venga limitata la possibilità di usare certificati di riduzione provenienti dalla distruzione di HFC-23.
 




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